The Placito Feretrano is a parchment discovered by Annibale degli Abati Olivieri in 1749 in the Archives of the Republic of San Marino.
It is a rather incorrect copy from the end of the 11th century of an earlier document (dated February 20, 885), measuring 360×650 mm, marred by numerous tears that ruin four lines and the entire lower right side of the text.
It was the object of interest of numerous scholars (from Cesare Manaresi to the Swiss Paul Aebischer). Even today there are many questions about the complete authenticity of the text or any interpolations.
The Placito Feretrano reports a dispute (a civil trial of the time held in Feretrano territory) between Deltone, bishop of Rimini, and Stefano, priest and abbot of the monastery of San Marino. Deltone claimed that Stefano had usurped some lands on the western side of the Titan from the Church of Rimini. The decision of the case was entrusted to Giovanni, bishop of Montefeltro, flanked by some 30 jurists and magistrates, who, after a long dispute, awarded victory to the San Marino abbot.
The latter, in fact, had succeeded in proving that the Church of Rimini had never been in possession of those properties. Thus it was recognized that the estates of Casole, Ravellino, Fabbrica, Petroniano, Pignaria, Griziano, Erviano, Laritiniano, Fiorentino, Silvole and Flagellaria belonged to the monastery of San Marino.
This is therefore the oldest document remaining to us proving the existence of a free and well-organized “civitas” on Mount Titan.
In fact, the Placito testifies to us that here, around the year 885, there was a castle coexisting with the monastery, which owned land cultivated by a very dense agricultural population; moreover, the independence of the territory of San Marino from the Church of Rimini and Montefeltro was declared for the first time.