San Marino is a presidential republic with important instruments of direct democracy: elections, referendum to abrogate, purposeful and confirmatory, and Istanza d’Arengo.
Citizens are called upon to express their opinion on a subject matter by means of an abrogative, confermative or propositive referendum.
To activate referendum procedures the promoting committee must present the text of the topic under question, subscribed to by sixty electors. It is the task of the Council of the Guarantors to pass judgement on its admissibility.
The most original and unique political organ of the Republic of San Marino; the “Arengo” was the ancient assembly of the heads of each family: ancestor to the Grand and General Council.
Today, this Institute is the official organ which deals with popular petitions; in fact, every six months, on the Sunday immediately after the installation of the Regents, the citizens of San Marino can, singularly or in groups, present to the Regents petitions dealing with topics of public interest, the Regents, in turn, submit the petitions for Parliamentary examination during the period of their six-month term. If the Grand and General Council admits the requests of the citizens, the State Congress (executive) is bound to transfer them into law.
The citizens of San Marino elect sixty parliamentarians every five years with general political elections. In the local elections, the voters choose the members of the Municipal Councils (Castle) as well as the Captain (Mayor).